A bug is a defect in the software. It produces unexpected results in software from what is intended. Bugs usually occur when the given requirements are not finished, or the requirements given are not sufficiently detailed or clear to encode correctly. Coding and logic errors are very common.
For example, if the user presses the Save tab in a documenting app, and the changes are not saved, it is a functionality error in the software. Likewise, if a calculator app is commanded to perform subtraction, and it gives an incorrect answer, it is a logic error. Such errors can be costly to businesses as their product loses viability which is hard to rebuild.
In the software development process, a bug has a life cycle. A bug life cycle starts when a software developer makes a mistake in developing the code. A bug life cycle ends when the bug is fixed. Bug management tools monitor the full bug life cycle. The key players involved in the bug life cycle are the reporter, developer, tester and test manager. Bug management tools inform the team of updates on the bug resolution. A bug's life cycle must be noted accurately for all team members to enable good communication between team members. When everyone is equally informed about defect monitoring, the project should flow smoothly.
What does a bug life cycle look like? We list the bug states found commonly in a bug cycle:
The reporter marks the status of the bug as unconfirmed when a bug has been found. The tester is now responsible for evaluating the bug.
The tester validates the bug by reproducing. Once confirmed, the tester registers the issue as a new bug. The responsibility shifts to the Test Manager.
The Test Manager assigns the bug to a developer. The test manager will also list bug severity and priority.
The developer works to fix the bug and lists the resolution status as one of the following: fixed, won’t fix, duplicate or invalid. A fixed status indicates that the bug is verified. A won’t fix status means that the bug is unfixable. Duplicate means that the bug is repeated. Invalid means that the bug is not correct.
The tester verifies the solution proposed by the developer. If the solution works, the bug is marked as verified. If the solution does not work, the bug is passed to the developer again.
The solution proposed by the developer for fixing the bug did not work. The bug was reported back to the developing team. Its status is marked as Reopened.
If the bug is not reported to the development team again, it is marked as closed.
Software testing teams can lessen the impact of bugs by early prevention and continuous monitoring. If bugs are not observed periodically, they can be extremely difficult to manage. It is thus necessary for software testing teams to take timely action and make good notes while they monitor the bug life cycle.